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Stress at work also can lead to physical illness, psychological distress and illness, and sickness absence [3, 4].Stress, depression, or anxiety accounts for 46% of days lost due to illness and are the single largest cause of all absences attributable to work-related illness .
Organisational programmes for physical activity showed a reduction in absenteeism.
The findings from the meta-analytic reviews were consistent with the findings from the narrative reviews.
(1995), "Stress and stress management among owner‐managers of small and medium‐sized enterprises", Employee Counselling Today, Vol.
https://doi.org/10.1108/13665629510096047 Download as .
Stress is, therefore, elicited and maintained by the individual’s actions and perceptions as well as the characteristics of their work environment.  describe categories of stress management interventions that target the individual or the organisation and specify actions at primary, secondary, or tertiary preventive levels (see Table 1) .
The specific conceptualisations of stress adopted influence the way interventions are constructed to tackle specific mechanisms in order to alter stress and its manifestations. Individual interventions include stress awareness training or cognitive behavioural therapy for psychological and emotional stress.
The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health in the US (NIOSH)  estimate the following: Given the global recession, financial strain, and job losses, greater work stress might have adverse consequences in UK.
The most recent data from the NHS information centre in UK suggest an increase in the suicide rate for the first time since 1998.
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