Research Paper Footnotes

Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence.

Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence.

Source citations in the Turabian manual come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography (or simply notes) and (2) author-date.

These two systems are also sometimes referred to as Chicago-style citations, because they are the same as the ones presented in .

If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote (try to avoid this!

Research Paper Footnotes

), try to put it at the end of the most relevant phrase, after a comma or other punctuation mark.Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word.If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it.Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper.Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references (author, date) in the body of your work.Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text.Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography.A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material.Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from which you drew your material.Here is an example: This is an illustration of a footnote.1 The number “1” at the end of the previous sentence corresponds with the note below. 1 At the bottom of the page you can insert your comments about the sentence preceding the footnote.When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end.

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