Other problems include references that are not needed but are included anyway (spurious citations) and ones that are added or omitted for reasons other than meeting the five goals of citations (biased citations).In general, authors can mitigate these citation problems by asking two questions: Additionally, citations sometimes have significance for reasons other than the five listed above.
Other problems include references that are not needed but are included anyway (spurious citations) and ones that are added or omitted for reasons other than meeting the five goals of citations (biased citations).In general, authors can mitigate these citation problems by asking two questions: Additionally, citations sometimes have significance for reasons other than the five listed above.Today, such citation counts and their metrification are used in hiring and promotion decisions, especially in academia, often as a substitute for thoughtful and informed judgment.Tags: Business Process PlanningEssay Wish Continue My EducationSonnambula Dessay FlorezWriting Hooks For Essays PowerpointWrite An Essay OutlineFree Will EssayShould A Research Paper Be Written In The Third PersonSix Sigma Essay
Citations in a scientific paper serve many goals, but there are five important goals.
While most authors do a good job of providing citations in their scientific papers, some papers are flawed because of missing citations, i.e., not enough citations to fulfill the five goals above.
Some authors are more likely to cite their colleagues’ work than their competitors’; some journals expect their submitting authors to preferentially cite work published in that journal.
However, the easiest way to promote your own work (and thus yourself) is with the self-citation: a citation to one’s own prior work.
An examination of 1.7 million JSTOR papers spanning across disciplines and over 60 years found that nearly 10% of citations were self-citations.
Referrencing Self In Essay
Further analysis showed that men were 56% more likely to cite their own work than women were, with the gender disparity growing over time.Self-cites are not inherently problematic (notice my self-cite in this article).Most scientific publications describe a part of a longer-term research effort, and self-citations can put the new publication in the context of that larger effort.One 2007 study reported in Scientometrics showed that it does, with each self-citation multiplying into three other citations to that author over a five-year period.Further, the penalties for excessive self-citation seem to be small or none.While this 2007 study looked at papers published from 1981 to 2000, I imagine that the higher levels of online searching and reading today have only increased this multiplying effect.Differences in self-citation rates are likely only one of many factors contributing to gender disparities in academic careers. Proper citing requires careful consideration of the appropriate goals of citations, aided by a simple ethos: make the paper reader-centric, not author-centric.Apparently self-regulation of self-citations is more effective in women than men. Women in academia seem less inclined to self-promotion than men, probably to their detriment.Does society pressure women to be more “feminine” and modest about their accomplishments?They can be counted, and in a data-driven world, these counts have assumed outsized importance as a proxy for the influence of a given paper.Citation counts also serve as (flawed) measures of journal importance (the impact factor) and researcher clout (the h-index).