Literature Review On Motivation Of Employees

Nonetheless, these definitions have three common aspects, that is, they are all principally concerned with factors or events that stimulate, channel, and prolong human behavior over time (Steers et al. Following Lakhani and Wolf (2005), Lakhani and Von Hippel (2003) and Lemer and Tirole (2004), the current scholarly thinking favors a framework that considers two components of motivation given by intrinsic and extrinsic components.

Accordingly, Lawler (1969) intrinsic motivation is the degree to which feelings of esteem, growth, and competence are expected to result from successful task performance.

Motivation can affect both the acquisition of people’s skills and abilities; and also the extent to which they utilize their skills and abilities” (Locke and Latham, 2004).

In a nut shell, different authors have put forward the concept of motivation differently.

As per to the author this definition of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is based on the individual perception of the individual perception of task and his or her reasons for engaging in it. further argued that intrinsic motivators arise from an individual’s feelings with regards to the activity and they are necessary to adhere to the work itself.

Conversely, extrinsic motivators although they may be dependent on the work, they are not logically an inherent part of the work.Furthermore, in line with the concept of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, De Charms (1968) suggest that external rewards might undermine intrinsic motivation.He further proposed that individuals seek for personal causation and because of the desire to be the “origin” of his behavior; man keeps struggling against the constraint of external forces.In addition Frey (1997) note that high intrinsic work motivation evolving from work which is interesting involves the trust and loyalty of personal relationships and is participatory.However, under certain circumstances, intrinsic motivation can be diminished, or ”crowded-out” by external interventions like monitoring or pay-for-performance incentive schemes.This was also supported by Frey and Jegen (2001) who reviewed the literature on intrinsic motivations and found that the evidence does suggest that incentives sometimes do ”crowd-out” intrinsic motivations.Besides, Frey (1997) suggests that the important matter is whether the external intervention is in the form of a command or a reward.There is a wide variety of theoretical frameworks that have been developed in the attempts to explain the issues related to motivation.Stoner, Edward and Daniel (1995) has described two different views on motivation theory, given by the earliest views and the contemporary approach which can further be subdivided into content and process theories.This view bounds intrinsic motivation to an expectancy approach and expectancy theory which clearly indicates that intrinsic and extrinsic motivations summate (Porter &Lawler, 1968). (1993) Individuals are said to be intrinsically motivated when they seek, interest, satisfaction of curiosity, self expression, or personal challenge in the work.On the other hand individuals are said to be extrinsically motivated when they engaged in the work to gain some goal that is part of the work itself.


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