Essays On Power And Authority

Essays On Power And Authority-15
Things may be done in formally and substantive rational ways, the difference between the two is that the former involves precise techniques of calculation such as those developed to measure technical efficiency or to track costs while the latter refers to the reason for rational action, that is, its meaning and value (Hatch, 2006); He warned that formal rationalization without substantive rationalization would lead to ‘iron cage” which Weber described as the dark side of bureaucracy.The drive for rationality, calculation and control may increase efficiency but also trap an individual in an iron cage that chokes creativity and free will.

Things may be done in formally and substantive rational ways, the difference between the two is that the former involves precise techniques of calculation such as those developed to measure technical efficiency or to track costs while the latter refers to the reason for rational action, that is, its meaning and value (Hatch, 2006); He warned that formal rationalization without substantive rationalization would lead to ‘iron cage” which Weber described as the dark side of bureaucracy.The drive for rationality, calculation and control may increase efficiency but also trap an individual in an iron cage that chokes creativity and free will.

46-48): Charismatic authority: when respect and obedience will be given because of the extraordinary attractiveness, popularity and power of a person.

The person is owed homage because of his or her capacity to project personal qualities; people follow them because of what they believe to be the special nature of their personalities and the success they have achieved. Princess Diana, Mother Theresa and Nelson Mandela Traditional authority: occurs where respect and obedience are owed because the person who holds it by birthright.

Rules, documents and filing is the order of the day as they govern official decision making and action.

When we think of bureaucracy, we often think of ‘red tape’ the strict adherence to formalities (Hatch, 2006, p. Therefore bureaucracy is characterized by high formalization Weber sees the rule of man over man in the society as an inevitable historical phenomenon; he distinguished between power and rule stating that the former hinges on having ones way in a social relationship and the latter as getting things done through specific channels persons (Warner, 2007, p. Authority is a source of power; other sources of power include personal character, expertise, coercion, control; one main difference between authority and other sources of power is that the exercise of authority is directed downward in organizations while the exercise of other forms of power may work in all directions (Hatch, 2006, p. Authority particularly stands out because it is associated with hierarchy, part of the social structure of organizations (Hatch, 2006, p. Weber believed that in a bureaucratic organization members adhere to the rules of that organization, he contrasted three types of authority namely (Clegg, Kornberger, & Tyrone, 2008, pp.

Weber used the term “Ideal” in the sense of a pure idea, something that can only be imagined rather than in a perfect situation ,it provides a foundation for theorizing because they are abstract they cannot be expected to exist in the world around us (Hatch, 2006, p. The ideal bureaucracy that Weber imagined was a means for turning employees of average ability into rational decision makers, serving their customers with impartiality and efficiency; This bureaucratic form promised reliable decision making, merit based selection , promotion, impersonality and impartiality and therefore fair application of rules (Hatch, 2006, p. Weber’s ‘ideal type’ theory offered the following characteristics outlined below: A fixed division of labour: The central feature of bureaucracy is division of labour coordinated under a centralized hierarchy of command.

It creates interdependencies in an organization which is managed mainly through hierarchy of authority and standardizing rules and procedures and supported by documenting procedures, regulations, rules and other prescriptions (Walton, 2005, p.The charismatic and legal forms of authority may coexist in an organization for example an employee may respect his immediate supervisor because of his charisma and the way he does his work and may decide to make him his mentor, even though they both are subordinates in the same organization(Hunt & Micheal, 1983).Rational-legal precepts, is exactly what Weber identified as the heart of bureaucratic organizations.573) A clearly defined hierarchy: Each office has its own clearly defined responsibility and competence.Hierarchical structures improve coordination by restricting free-flowing communications within components (Walton, 2005, p. The hierarchy that workers are subject to at the workplace, Weber argued was required by the organization with complex technical and production processes, it is therefore required to coordinate division of labour (Beetham, 1996, p. Bureaucracy is characterized by expertise because candidates for office are selected on the basis of merit and qualification, and Promotion is guaranteed according to seniority of achievement, and rewarded by fixed salaries paid in money (Hatch, 2006, p. On employment, the office is the primary occupation of the employee and the employee looks forward to a long life career in the organization, and this promotes continuity in an organization (Hatch, 2006, p. Official work is to be separate from ownership of the means of administration; this implies impersonality and Impartiality (Hatch, 2006, p. Work is conducted according to set rules without “arbitrariness and favoritism” (Beetham, 1996, p.You can view samples of our professional work here.Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.Bureaucracy has been studied for a long time now and many organizations have adopted this model in the day to day running of their organization.The aim of this essay is to explore the “Ideal type” bureaucracy developed by Max Weber, its characteristics, the role of power and authority on it and its strengths and weaknesses.Prince Charles, for instance is not so much an authority because of his charisma, but because of tradition.Rational-legal authority signifies that respect and obedience are owed not to the person or the title they hold but to the role they fill.

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