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As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870." The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, and the Imperial German government brought in its scientists, engineers, and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies, but to forge Berlin as the world's model city.A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented "the most complete application of science, order and method of public life," adding "it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is." The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste.London also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward.
Major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, light pollution, littering, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution.
Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric times, when man created the first fires.
The pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning.
The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years.
King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem; the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow.
It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today.The burning of coal and wood, and the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution.The Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply.Reformers began to demand sewer systems and clean water."Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a truly fearsome smell.There were no public toilets in the streets or squares.Though extreme care is practiced in that industry, the potential for disaster suggested by incidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl pose a lingering specter of public mistrust.Worldwide publicity has been intense on those disasters.Nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the Cold War, especially in the earlier stages of their development.The toll on the worst-affected populations and the growth since then in understanding about the critical threat to human health posed by radioactivity has also been a prohibitive complication associated with nuclear power.Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people in the world.