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WHO defines health beyond physical and mental well-being, including social well-being (Beisser, 1990, p.179), which introduces new levels of complexity into researching health-related issues.In the post-2015 development agenda, social well-being should have an important place, including the quality of relationships, positive emotions and resilience, the realization of individuals' potential, or their overall satisfaction with life that are meaningful to the public.
As Seth Berkley and his colleagues (2013) argue, "[a] healthy population is a pre-requisite for development" (p.1076).
However, health should be viewed broader than immunizations, disease treatment and environmental factors.
To give an idea of the dimensions of the disability-related injustice in Brazil, I will refer here to the most recent national Census and several small-scale studies.
The Census in 2010 revealed that there are more than 45 million Brazilians with various impairments, which corresponds to almost 24 percent of the population.
Williams (2003), for example, has presented four case studies illustrating how disability directly results from acts of domestic violence, and how violated and disabled individuals are victimized. (2009) have explored forms of violence most prevalent in an area of Rio de Janeiro, and found that disabled youth mostly suffered from negligence and psychological abuse followed by physical and sexual abuse.
This study focused on three institutions in Rio de Janeiro, in public (federal and municipal) and nonprofit sectors that develop programs and projects in the areas of rehabilitation, social inclusion, and health and quality of life of people with impairments and other vulnerable populations.
In addition, I examine available governmental reports and nongovernmental organization websites to inform my discussion of violence prevention strategies enacted in Brazil.
I also carried out fieldwork in Brazil in the summer of 2011, conducting 11 individual semi-structured interviews with people with various impairments to explore their experiences and their understanding of justice and equality in Brazilian society.
As Maio and Gugel (2009) have noted, Brazil has no official national statistics on violence perpetrated against its disabled citizens.
However, information available from prosecutors who defend the rights of the nation's disabled citizens suggest that intellectually impaired individuals are the most vulnerable to violence, whether children or seniors (Maio & Gugel, 2009, p. Several scholars (Williams, 2003; Cavalcante, Marinho, Bastos, Deus, Maimone, Carvalho, Fiaux, and Valdene, 2009; Cavalcante & Minayo, 2009) have conducted small-scale studies in Brazil to obtain a better understanding of the dimensions, causes, prevention and effective responses to violence against disabled people.