Broadly, there are three types of punishment: presentation of aversive stimuli (e.g., pain), response cost (removal of desirable stimuli as in monetary fines), and restriction of freedom (as in a 'time out').
Some other potential unwanted effects include resentment over being punished, attempts to escape the punishment, expression of pain and negative emotions associated with it, and recognition by the punished individual between the punishment and the person delivering it.
If a behavior is followed closely in time by a stimulus and this results in an increase in the future frequency of that behavior, then the stimulus is a positive reinforcer.
If the removal of an event serves as a reinforcer, this is termed negative reinforcement.
The behavior is then set to be extinguished (Cooper et al.).
Extinction procedures are often preferred over punishment procedures, as many punishment procedures are deemed unethical and in many states prohibited.
In 1965, Lovaas published a series of articles that outlined his system for coding observed behaviors, described a pioneering investigation of the antecedents and consequences that maintained a problem behavior, and relied upon the methods of errorless learning that was initially devised by Charles Ferster to teach nonverbal children to speak.
Lovaas also described how to use social (secondary) reinforcers, teach children to imitate, and what interventions (including electric shocks) may be used to reduce aggression and life-threatening self-injury.
Note that in respondent conditioning, unlike operant conditioning, the response does not produce a reinforcer or punisher (e.g. The environment is the entire constellation of stimuli in which an organism exists.
It is the process by which behavior is strengthened.