Conceptual Research Paper

Conceptual Research Paper-43
We suggest that many studies of boards can best be interpreted as joint statements about both the director-selection process and the effect of board composition on board actions and firm performance. "The Role of Boards of Directors in Corporate Governance: A Conceptual Framework and Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. Bulletin on Retirement and Disability Bulletin on Health including Archive of Lists of Affiliates' Work in Medical and Other Journals with Pre-Publication Restrictions Archives of Bulletin on Aging and Health Digest — Non-technical summaries of 4-8 working papers per month Reporter — News about the Bureau and its activities.Acknowledgments Machine-readable bibliographic record - MARC, RIS, Bib Te X Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w14486 Published: Renee B. There is widespread interest in evaluating the social impacts of research and other scholarly activities.

We suggest that many studies of boards can best be interpreted as joint statements about both the director-selection process and the effect of board composition on board actions and firm performance. "The Role of Boards of Directors in Corporate Governance: A Conceptual Framework and Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. Bulletin on Retirement and Disability Bulletin on Health including Archive of Lists of Affiliates' Work in Medical and Other Journals with Pre-Publication Restrictions Archives of Bulletin on Aging and Health Digest — Non-technical summaries of 4-8 working papers per month Reporter — News about the Bureau and its activities.

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These questions are fundamentally intertwined, which complicates the study of boards due to the joint endogeneity of makeup and actions.

A focus of this survey is on how the literature, theoretical as well as empirically, deals - or on occasions fails to deal - with this complication.

Finally we consider how internal institutional data, such as researcher curricula vitae and grant applications, can be used to identify and incentivize social engagement and outward-facing scholarly activities (that is, activities with outward-facing goals).

We consider both the value of existing institutional data and how modest changes to data-collection systems might dramatically improve their value for capabilities-inspired incentives or program evaluation.We first distinguish resources—such as wealth and intellectual credit—from the goals of scholarship, and further distinguish inward- and outward-facing goals.Outward-facing goals refer to the intended social impacts of research.We first distinguish two kinds of goals for scholarly research — inward- and outward-facing — and discuss the relationship between these goals, the value of research, and conventional bibliometrics and economic metrics of research productivity.Next we introduce the Capabilities Approach, a conceptual framework for national well-being that was developed by economists and philosophers as an alternative to measures such as Gross Domestic Product.We propose that the items on this list provide a useful starting point for articulating the specific social aims of research.We argue that the Capabilities Approach can facilitate research communication and improve the recognition of public engagement in academic and funding institutions.In Science, the Endless Frontier, Vannevar Bush argued for the creation of the US National Science Foundation — an institution dedicated to funding “basic” rather than “applied” scientific research — on the grounds that “new scientific knowledge” was essential to treat disease and mental illness, protect national security, and promote “the public welfare” more generally (Bush, 1945–1960, pp. Today, discussions of the social impact of research often focus on the economic impacts of that research (Narin et al., 1997; Toole, 2012; Fealing and Johnson, 2017; Li et al., 2017).But the interests of society go well beyond an interest in wealth generation (Bozeman and Sarewitz, 2005). 14486 Issued in November 2008 NBER Program(s): Corporate Finance This paper is a survey of the literature on boards of directors, with an emphasis on research done subsequent to the Hermalin and Weisbach (2003) survey.The two questions most asked about boards are what determines their makeup and what determines their actions?

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