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Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed.
The first Roman emperor, Augustus, framed his ascent to sole power as a return to traditional morality, and attempted to regulate the conduct of women through moral legislation.
Adultery, which had been a private family matter under the Republic, was criminalized, and defined broadly as an illicit sex act (stuprum) that occurred between a male citizen and a married woman, or between a married woman and any man other than her husband.
Until marriage, women were under the guardianship of their father or other male relative. As women were barred from conducting legal proceedings, the kyrios would do so on their behalf.
Women were excluded from ancient Athenian democracy, both in principle and in practice.
Slaves could become Athenian citizens after being freed, but no woman ever acquired citizenship in ancient Athens.
During the Hellenistic period in Athens, the philosopher Aristotle thought that women would bring disorder and evil, therefore it was best to keep women separate from the rest of the society.Athenian women received little education, except home tutorship for basic skills such as spin, weave, cook and some knowledge of money.Although Spartan women were formally excluded from military and political life they enjoyed considerable status as mothers of Spartan warriors.Women in ancient Egypt could buy, sell, be a partner in legal contracts, be executor in wills and witness to legal documents, bring court action, and adopt children.Women in Classical Athens had no legal personhood and were assumed to be part of the oikos headed by the male kyrios.Aristotle, who had been taught by Plato, denied that women were slaves or subject to property, arguing that "nature has distinguished between the female and the slave", but he considered wives to be "bought".He argued that women's main economic activity is that of safeguarding the household property created by men.This arrangement was one of the factors in the independence Roman women enjoyed.They were simultaneously disparaged as too ignorant and weak-minded to practice law, and as too active and influential in legal matters—resulting in an edict that limited women to conducting cases on their own behalf instead of others'.They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys.Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy; to be free from sexual violence; to vote; to hold public office; to enter into legal contracts; to have equal rights in family law; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to have reproductive rights; to own property; to education.